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In-Text Citations

GENERAL RULES FOR IN-TEXT CITATIONS

  • Each entry in your list of references must also appear in your text.
  • Each in-text reference must appear in your list of references.*
  • APA in-text citations consist of the author's last name and the year of publication; direct quotes also require a page number.
  • MLA in-text citations consist of the author's last name and the page number. The page number is always in parentheses.
  • In-text citations may be in parentheses or included within the text.
  • In-text citations may appear at the end of a sentence or within the sentence.

* There are some exceptions to this rule, including personal communication, such as an email or interview.

Click on the APA Publication Manual or MLA Handbook below for examples of each.

APA Publication Manual

MLA Handbook