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Citing Sources: APA Electronic Sources

How to cite print and electronic sources using APA or MLA style.

APA Electronic Sources

How to Cite Electronic Sources in APA Style

This document is a guide to citing the most common electronic sources using APA style, based on information available at "APA Style Help." http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx  and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition. The numbers in parentheses refer to the section numbers in the Manual that apply to the rule described.

 Reference List Citations

Online document (6.31)

The general format is:

Author, A. A.(date).Title of work. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Kearl, M.C. (1997). Sociological tour of cyberspace.

          Retrieved from http://www.Trinity.edu/~mkearl/index.htmn#in

(Do not end your URL address with a period.)

Online document with no author identified (6.27) and no dates (6.28)

The general format is:

Title of work. (n.d.). Retrieved URL

 Example:

 GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.).  Retrieved  from 

     http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/ 

Online periodical article with a DOI, digital object identifier, (6.32) 

The general format is:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C.C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume

    
(issue), pp-pp. doi xx.xxxxxxxxx

Example:

Bradshaw, C. J., Brook, B. W., & McMahon, O. R. (2007, June). Dangers of 

     sensationalizing conservation biology. Conservation Biology, 21(3), 

     570-571. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00698.x

Online periodical article without a DOI (6.31)

The general format is:

Author, A.A., Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume (issue), pp-pp.  Retrieved from URL

Example:

Clay, R. (2008, June).  Science vs. ideology:  Psychologists fight back about the misuse 

     of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6).  Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/

Periodical article found in a library subscription database (6.32)

If this is the electronic version of a print article, follow the print format. It is not necessary to name the database unless it is the only place the document can be found, such as a dissertation:

Author, A.A., Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume (issue), pp-pp.

Example:

Doe, J. (2009, August). Time to act on climate change. Australian Nursing Journal, 17(2), 

     7-8.

In Text Citations

Electronic material in your text(6.11).

Use the author-date method. Any of these examples is acceptable:

Smith (2000) found that early onset Alzheimer's was linked to three genes.

Early onset Alzheimer's is linked to three genes (Smith, 2000)

In 2000, Smith found that early onset Alzheimer's was linked to three genes.

Direct quotation from an online source (6.03)

Follow the above format, including the page number as well. If the electronic source does not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number. If neither paragraph number nor page numbers are provided, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it, using the abbreviation para.(6.05).

Examples:

(Smith, 2000, p.45)             

(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)

For a lengthy quotation of 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and display in a free standing block of text, indented about 1/2 inch from left margin, and double spaced.  At the end of the quotation, insert source information in parentheses (author, year, p.) after the final punctuation. 

For more examples of how to cite electronic formats, please see:

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (REF BF76.7.P83 2010). Available at the Bellevue University Library.

"APA Style Help" at the American Psychological Association website,  
http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx

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